56. Chapter: On the excellence of hunger, a simple live style, and confining oneself to little in food, drink, clothing and other things which are the portion of the self, and abandoning appetites
Allah Almighty says, "An evil generation succeeded them who neglected the prayer and followed their appetites. They will plunge into the Valley of Evil ­ except for those who turn in repentance and believe and act righteously. They will enter the Garden and they will not be wronged in any way." (19:59-60) The Almighty says, "He went out among his people in his finery. Those who desired the life of this world said, 'Oh! If only we had the same as Qarun has been given! What immense good fortune he possesses.' But those who had been given knowledge said, 'Woe to you! Allah's reward is better for those who believe and act rightly." (28:79-80) The Almighty says, "Then you will be asked that Day about the pleasures you enjoyed," (102:8) and the Almighty says, "As for anyone who desires this fleeting existence, We hasten for him in it whatever We will to whoever We want. Then We will consign him to Hell where he will roast, reviled and driven out." (17:18)
491. 'A'isha said, "The family of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never had their fill of barley bread for two consecutive days until he died." [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "From the time he came to Madina, the family of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never had their fill of wheat bread for three consecutive nights until he died."

492. 'Urwa reported that 'A'isha used to say, "By Allah, nephew, we used to see three crescent moons in two months without a fire being lit in the houses of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." I said. "Aunt, what did you live off?" She said, "The two black ones: dates and water. However, the Messenger of Allah had some neighbours among the Ansar, and they have milk camels, and they would send us some of their milk and we would drink it." [Agreed upon]

493. Abu Sa'id al-Maqburi said that Abu Hurayra passed by some people who had a roast sheep in front of them and they invited him to eat, but he refused to eat, saying, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left this world without having his fill of barley bread." [al-Bukhari]

494. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not eat off a table up until the time he died, and he did not eat fine bread up until the time he died." [al-Bukhari]

In one variant of his, "He never ever saw a whole roast sheep."

495. An-Nu'man ibn Bashir said, "I saw your Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he did not have enough poor quality dates to fill his belly." [Muslim]

496. Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not see fine bread from the time that Allah Almighty sent him until the time He took him." He was asked, "Did you not have sieves in the time of the Messenger of Allah?" He replied, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never saw a sieve from the time that Allah Almighty sent him until the time He took him." He was asked, "How did you eat unsieved barley?" He said, "We used to rind it and blow on it and what blew away would blow away and we would knead what remained." [al-Bukhari]

497. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out one day or night and came upon Abu Bakr and 'Umar and said, 'What has brought you out of your houses at this hour?' They said, 'Hunger, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Me too. By the One in whose hand my soul is, what brought you out brought me out, so get up.' They got up with him and went to visit a man of the Ansar, but he was not at home. When his wife saw him, she said, 'Welcome! Welcome!' The Messenger of Allah said to her, 'Where is so-and-so?' She said, 'He has gone to get water for us.' Then the Ansari came and saw the Messenger of Allah and his two companions and said, 'Praise be to Allah. Today no one has more honoured guests than I!' He went and brought them a branch with unripe and ripe fresh dates on it and said, 'Eat.' He took a knife and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'Don't slaughter one which yields milk.' So he slaughtered for them and they ate from the sheep and from that branch and drank. When they were full and their thirst quenched, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Abu Bakr and 'Umar, 'By the One who has my soul in His hand, you will be asked about this blessing on the Day of Rising. Hunger brought you out of your houses and you did not return until you had received this blessing.'" [Muslim]

The Ansari who they visited was Abu'l-Haytham ibn at-Tayyihan. This is clearly stated in the variant of at-Tirmidhi and others.

498. Khalid ibn 'Umayr al-'Adawi said, "'Utba ibn Ghazwan addressed us when he was governor of Basra. He praised and glorified Allah and then said, 'This world has announced that it is vanishing, retreating swiftly and only a trace of it will be left like the small amount left in a vessel after its owner has drunk it. You are moving from it to an abode which will not vanish. So move to it with the best you have. It has been mentioned to us that a stone thrown from the brink of Hellfire will fall in it for forty years without reaching its bottom. By Allah, it will be filled! Does that surprise you? It has been mentioned to us that between the two halves of the Garden is the distance of forty years, but a day will come when it will be blocked by the crowd of people there. I remember myself as one of seven who were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the only food we had was some leaves of a tree which cut the corners of our mouths. I got a cloak and divided it between myself and Sa'd ibn Malik. I used half of it as a wrapper and Sa'd used half as a wrapper. Today there is not one of us who is not an amir over some city. I seek refuge with Allah from being great with myself and small with Allah." [Muslim]

499. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "'A'isha brought out for us a garment and thick wrapper and said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died wearing these two.'" [Agreed upon]

500. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas said, "I was the first of the Arabs to shoot an arrow in the way of Allah. We used to raid with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we had no food except acacia leaves so that when one of us went to relieve himself it was like sheep droppings." [Agreed upon]

501. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O Allah, make the provision of the family of Muhammad adequate!" [Agreed upon]

502. Abu Hurayra said, "By Allah, there is no god but He. I used to lie with my stomach on the ground out of hunger and I used to tie a stone on my belly because of hunger. One day I sat on the path by which they used to go out and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by me. He smiled when he saw me and recognised what was in my face and in myself. Then he said, 'Abu Hirr!' I said, 'At your service, Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'Come along' and went and followed him. He went inside and I asked permission to enter. He gave me permission and I went inside. He found some milk in a cup and asked, 'Where is this milk from?' They said, 'So-and-so gave it to you.' He said, 'Abu Hirr.' I said, 'At your service, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Go along to the people of the Suffa and invite them here to me.'" He said, "The people of the Suffa were the guests of Islam. They did not have recourse to family, property or anyone. When sadaqa came to him, he used to send it to them and not take any of it himself. When a gift came to him, he sent for them and had some of it himself and let them share in it. His saying that annoyed me and I said to myself, 'What good will this milk be among the people of the Suffa? I have more need of drinking it to give me strength. When they come, he will tell me to give it to them.' It was not likely that I would get any of the milk, but there was no escape from obeying Allah and obeying His Messenger so I went and invited them and they accepted and asked for permission to come in and he gave them permission. They took their seats in the house. He said, 'Abu Hirr!' I said, 'At your service, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Take it and give it to them.'" He said, "I took the cup and gave it to a man and he drank until his thirst was quenched. Then he returned the cup to me and I gave it to another man who drank until his thirst was quenched and he returned the cup to me. [Another] drank until his thirst was quenched and he returned the cup to me until I reached the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when all the people had had enough. He took the cup and placed it in his hand and looked at me and smiled. He said, 'Abu Hirr.' I said, 'At your service, Messenger of Allah' He said, 'I and you remain.' I said, 'You have spoken the truth, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Sit and drink.' I sat and drank. He said, 'Drink.' So I drank. He kept saying, 'Drink' until I said, 'By the One who sent you with the truth, I cannot find any more room for it.' He said, 'Give it to me,' so I gave him the cup and he praised Allah Almighty, said the name of Allah, and drank the rest.". [al-Bukhari]

503. Muhammad ibn Sirin reported that Abu Hurayra said, "I used to fall down in a faint between the minbar of the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the room of 'A'isha. A passer-by would come and put his foot on my neck and think that I was mad. I was not mad. I was only hungry." [al-Bukhari]

504. 'A'isha said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died his armour was in pawn to a Jew for thirty sa's of barley." [Agreed upon]

505. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pawned his armour for some barley. I took some barley bread and dissolved fat to the Prophet and I heard him say, 'The family of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has never had more than a sa' in the morning nor the evening,' and they were nine households." [al-Bukhari]

506. Abu Hurayra said, "I saw seventy of the people of the Suffa and none of them was wearing a cloak, but only either a waist-wrapper or a shirt which they tied round their necks so that it only reached half way down their thighs or to their ankles. They would gather it together with their hands not wanting their nakedness to be seen." [al-Bukhari]

507. 'A'isha said, "The bed of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, as made of hide stuffed with palm-fibre." [al-Bukhari]

508. Ibn 'Umar said, "We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a man of the Ansar came and greeted him. Then the Ansari turned away and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'O brother of the Ansar, how is Sa'd ibn 'Ubada!' He said, 'Well.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Who among you wants to visit him?' He got up and about ten of us got up with him without sandals or leather socks or head coverings or shirts. We walked through those salt marshes until we reached him. His family moved back from around him so that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and His Companions who were with him could get near." [Muslim]]

509. 'Imran ibn al-Husayn reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The best of you are my generation and then those who follow them and then those who follow them." 'Imran said, "I do not know whether the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said it twice or three times." "Then after them will come a people who testify when they are not asked to testify, and who betray and are not trustworthy, who make a vow and do not fulfil it. Fleshiness will appear among them." [Agreed upon]

510. Abu Umama reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O son of Adam, it is better for you to spend what is in excess of your needs and worse for you to keep it. You will not be blamed for (keeping) enough to cover your needs. Begin with your immediate dependants." [at-Tirmidhi]

511. 'Ubaydullah ibn Muhsan al-Ansari al-Khatmi said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Any of you who wakes up in the morning safe in himself, healthy in his body, with food for the day, it is as if he had the entire world.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

512. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The successful one is he who becomes Muslim, has adequate provision and whom Allah makes satisfied with what He gives him." [Muslim]

513. Abu Muhammad Fadala ibn 'Ubayd al-Ansari reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "O the delight of the one who is guided to Islam, has adequate livelihood, and is contented." [at-Tirmidhi]

514. Ibn 'Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go hungry for nights in a row at the time when his people could find no support. Most of their bread was barley bread." [at-Tirmidhi]

515. Fadala ibn 'Ubayd reported that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to lead the people in prayer, some men who were there would fall over during the prayer owing to extreme hunger. They were the People of the Suffa. This reached such a point that the desert Arabs said, 'Those people are mad.' When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had prayed, he went to them and said, 'If you only knew what you have with Allah Almighty, you would wish to be increased in poverty and need.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

516. Abu Karima al-Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'A human being fills up no vessel worse than his belly. Enough for a son of Adam are some morsels which will kept his back straight. If it cannot be avoided, then a third is for his food, a third for his drink, and a third for himself." [at-Tirmidhi]

517. Abu Umama Iyas ibn Tha'laba al-Ansari al-Harithi said, "One day the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned this world, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do you not hear? Do you not hear? Raggedness is part of belief. Raggedness is part of belief,' meaning doing without luxury." [Abu Dawud]

518. Abu 'Abdullah Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent us on an expedition and he put Abu 'Ubadya in command over us. We were to meet the caravan of Quraysh and we were provisioned with bags of dates which we was all that we could find. Abu 'Ubadya would give each of us a date. It was asked, 'What did you do with it?' He said, 'We would suck on it as a child sucks and then we would drink from water poured on it. It was enough for us for the day until night. We used to knock leaves off branches and then moisten them with water and eat them.'"

He said, "We proceeded along the coast and something on the sea coast looking like an immense heap became visible to us. We reached it and it was the creature called the sperm whale. Abu 'Ubayda said, 'Carrion.' Then he said, 'No, rather we are the messengers of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we are travelling in the way of Allah and have been forced by need, so eat.'. We lived on it for a month - and there were three hundred of us - eating until we were full. I remember us scooping out oil from its eye-socket with jugs, and from it we cut saddle-cloths the size of an ox - or similar to the size of an ox. Abu 'Ubayda took thirteen of us and had us sit in its eye-socket, and he took one of its ribs and stood it upright and then the largest camel we had with us went under it. We took provision from its meat and strips of dried meat. When we reached Madina, we went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned that to him. He said, 'It was provision with which Allah provided you. Do you have any of its meat with you so that you can feed us?' So we sent some of it to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he ate it." [Muslim]

519. Asma' bint Yazid said, "The sleeve of the shirt of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reached his wrist." [at-Tirmidhi]

520. Jabir said, "On the Day of the Ditch, we were digging and a hard bit of rock became exposed. They went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "'There is a hard bit of rock exposed in the Ditch.' He said, 'I am coming down.' He got up and there was a stone tied to his belly. We had been three days without eating at all. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took a pick and struck it and it became like soft sand. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, give me permission to go to my house.' I said to my wife, 'I see that the Prophet is in a condition I cannot bear. Do you have anything?' She said, 'I have some barley and a lamb.' So I sacrificed the lamb and she ground the barley and we put the meat in a cooking-pot. Then I went to the Messenger of Allah when the bread was kneaded and the pot was on the cooking stones and nearly cooked and said, 'I have a little food, so, Messenger of Allah, come with one or two men.' He asked, 'How much is it?' I told him and he said, 'Many is good. Tell her not to remove the pot nor take the bread from the oven until I come.' He said, 'Get up,' and the Muhajirun and Ansar got up. I went to her and said, 'Poor you! The Prophet, the Muhajirun, the Ansar and those with them have all come!' She said, 'Did he ask you?' I said. 'Yes.' He said, 'Enter, but do not crowd round.' He began to break up the bread and put meat on it, covering the pot and oven after he took something from them. He gave it to his Companions who then withdrew. He continued to breaking up bread and ladling until they were full and there was still some left. He said, 'Eat this and give some away, for hunger has afflicted the people.'" [Agreed upon]

In one variant, Jabir said, "When the ditch was dug, I saw that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was hungry, so I went back to my wife and said, 'Do you have anything? I see that the Messenger of Allah is very hungry.' She brought out a bag which contained a sa' of barley. We had a lamb we had kept at home, so I slaughtered it and she ground the barley. I finished and cut it up in her cooking-pot. Then I turned to go back to the Messenger of Allah. She said, 'Do not disgrace me before the Messenger of Allah and those with him.' I went to him and spoke confidentially to him, 'Messenger of Allah, we have slaughtered a small lamb of ours and ground a sa' of barley, so let you and a few people come.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, shouted, 'People of the Ditch! Jabir has prepared some food, so come along!' The Prophet said, 'Do not remove your pot nor bake your bread until I come.' I came and the Prophet came leading the people. I went to my wife and she said, 'It is all your fault!' I said, 'I did what you said.' She brought out the dough and he spat in it and blessed it. Then he went to our pot and spat and blessed it. Then he said, 'Call the woman who bakes and let her bake with you, and ladle from your pot and do not remove it.' There were a thousand of them. I swear by Allah, they ate until they left the food and went away. Our pot was boiling as before and out dough was baking as before."

521. Anas said, "Abu Talha said to Umm Sulaym, 'I heard the voice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it was weak and I recognised hunger in it. Do you have anything?' She said, 'Yes,' and produced some barley loaves. She took a scarf of hers and wrapped up the bread in part of it and then she put it under my garment and tied the other end of it round me. Then she sent me to the Messenger of Allah and I took it with me. I found the Messenger of Allah sitting in the mosque with some people. I stood over them and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, 'Did Abu Talha send you?' I answered, 'Yes.' He said, 'For a meal?' I replied, 'Yes.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered, 'Get up.' Then he set off and I went on ahead of them until I came to Abu Talha and informed him. Abu Talha said, 'Umm Sulaym! The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has come with some people, and we do not have anything to feed them.' She said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' Abu Talha went to meet the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allah went forward with him until they both entered and the Messenger of Allah said, 'Bring what you have, Umm Sulaym.' So she brought that bread and the Messenger of Allah commanded it to be broken up and then Umm Sulayman squeezed some ghee on it to flavour it.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said what Allah willed over it and then he said, 'Admit ten,' and he admitted them. They ate until they were full and then went out. Then he said, 'Admit ten' and he admitted them. They ate until they were full and then went out. Then he said, 'Admit ten' and he admitted them and so on until all the people had eaten and were full, and there were seventy or eighty men." [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "Ten continued to enter and ten leave until everyone of them had entered and eaten until he was full up, and then they gathered it up and there was the same amount as when they had begun to eat from it."

In one variant, "They ate ten by ten until eighty men had done that. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ate after that and the people of the house, and there was still some left over."

In one variant, "Then they still had enough left over to send to their neighbours."

In one variant Anas said, "I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one day and I found him sitting with his Companions and he had tied a band around his stomach. I asked some of his Companions, 'Why has the Messenger of Allah bound up his stomach.' They said, 'Out of hunger.' So I went to Abu Talha, who was the husband of Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, and said, 'O father, I have seen the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his stomach tied with a band and I asked some of his Companions and they said, "It is from hunger." Abu Talha went in to my mother and asked, 'Do you have anything?' She replied, 'Yes, I have some pieces of barley and some dates. If the Messenger of Allah comes to us alone, we can give him his fill. If someone else comes with him, it will be little for them,'" and he mentioned the whole hadith.

57. Chapter: On Contentment, self-restraint, moderation in life style and spending, and criticism of asking without necessity

Allah Almighty says, "There is no creature on the earth which is not dependent on Allah for its provision," (11:6) and the Almighty says, "It is for the poor who are held back in the Way of Allah, unable to travel in the land. The ignorant consider them rich because of their reticence. You will know them by their mark. They do not ask people importunately." (W2:272; H2:273) The Almighty says, "Those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor mean, but take a stance mid way between the two," (25:68) and the Almighty says, "I did not create either jinn or man except to worship Me. I do not require any provision from them and I do not require them to nourish Me." (51:56-57)
522. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Wealth is not from a lot of money. Wealth is the independence of the self." [Agreed upon]

523. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The successful one is he who becomes Muslim, has adequate provision and whom Allah makes satisfied with what He gives him." [Muslim]

524. Hakim ibn Hizam said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he gave to me and then I asked him and he gave to me and then I asked him again and he gave to me. Then he said, 'Hakim, wealth is verdant and sweet. Anyone who takes it in a generous spirit will be blessed in it but anyone who takes it in an avaricious way will not be blessed in it, like someone who eats and is not satisfied. The upper hand is better than the lower hand.'" Hakim said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, by the One who sent you with the Truth, I will never again ask anyone for anything until I leave this world.'" Abu Bakr called Hakim to take his share and he refused to take it from him. Then 'Umar called him to give to him and he refused to accept anything from him either. 'Umar said, "I call on you to testify, company of Muslims, that I offered Hakim his share of this booty and he refused to take it. Hakim did not take anything from any person after the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, until he died. [Agreed upon]

525. Abu Burda reported that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "Once we went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on an expedition and six of us were sharing one camel which we took it in turns to ride. Our feet became pierced through and my feet were pierced through and my toe-nails came off. We wrapped our feet in rags and so it became called the Expedition of Rags because of that." Abu Burda said, "Abu Musa related this hadith to us and then disliked having done so and said, 'I wish I had not mentioned it!'" He said, "It was as if he disliked any of his actions being disclosed." [Agreed upon]

526. 'Amr ibn Taghlib said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought some money or captives and shared them out. He gave to some men and left others out. He heard that those who had been left out had been critical about it. He praised Allah and glorified Him and then said, 'As for what follows (amma ba'd), by Allah, I give to one man and leave out another and yet I love the one whom I leave out more than the one I give to. But I give to some people because of the anxiety and unease I see in their hearts. I entrust some people to the wealth and good which Allah has placed in their hearts. One of those is 'Amr ibn Taghlib.' By Allah, what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said is dearer to me than red camels." [al-Bukhari]

527. Hakim ibn Hizam reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The upper hand is better than the lower hand. Begin with your dependants. The best sadaqa is that given by the wealthy. Anyone who refrains [from asking], Allah will spare him the need to and anyone who seeks to be independent, Allah will give him independence." [Agreed upon]

528. Abu Sufyan Sakhr ibn Harb reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not be importunate in asking. By Allah, none of you asks me for something but that his request brings him something from me, even if I dislike it, and he is blessed in whatever I give him." [Muslim]

529. Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Malik al-Ashja'i said, "We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and there were seven or eight or nine of us. He said, 'Will you not give allegiance to the Messenger of Allah?' and we had only recently given allegiance. We said, 'We have already given you our allegiance, Messenger of Allah.' He said, 'Will you not give allegiance to the Messenger of Allah?' and we stretched out our hands and said, 'We have already given you our allegiance, Messenger of Allah. On what basis should we give you our allegiance?' He said, 'That you worship Allah and do not associate anything with him, the five prayers and that you obey,' and he said something softly, 'and that you do not ask people for anything.' I later saw one of those people drop his whip and he did not ask anyone to hand it to him." [Muslim]

530. Ibn 'Umar reported the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A man will continue to ask from other people until on the Day of Rising he does not have a single piece of flesh on his face." [Agreed upon]

531. From Ibn 'Umar is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stated while he was on the minbar, "The upper hand is better than the lower hand. The upper hand is the one which spends and the lower is the beggar's." [Agreed upon]

532. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who asks people for an increase over what he has, is asking for a hot ember. He can either seek to be independent or seek increase." [Muslim]

533. Samura ibn Jundub reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A man merely exhausts himself by asking except if he asks a Sultan or for something that he has no choice about." [at-Tirmidhi]

534. Ibn Mas'ud said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'If someone is afflicted by poverty and then goes to people with it, his poverty will not be alleviated. If someone goes to Allah with it, Allah will definitely bring him provision, sooner or later." [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

535. Thawban reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Is there anyone who will be a surety for me and not ask people for anything and then I will be a surety for him for the Garden?" I said, "I will be." And indeed he never asked anyone for anything. [Abu Dawud]

536. Abu Bishr Qabisa ibn al-Mukhariq said, "I had a debt which I had to discharge and I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and asked him about it. He said, 'Wait until sadaqa comes to me and we will make sure you get it.' Then he said, 'O Qabisa, begging is only lawful for three men: a man who has an obligation to pay, and asking is lawful for him until he gets it and then he should refrain; a man who has needs which require money, and it is lawful for him to ask until he gets enough for his subsistence - or he said to cover his subsistence; and a man who is afflicted by poverty so that three people of intelligence among his people say, "Poverty has afflicted so-and so," and it is lawful for him to ask until he gets enough for his subsistence - or he said to cover his subsistence. Any other instances of asking than these, Qabisa, are unlawful and anyone who does so consumes the unlawful.'" [Muslim]

537. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The very poor man is not the one who goes around to people to ask for a bite or two to eat or a date or two, but the one who does not have enough for himself but is too shy to ask so that he is given sadaqa - or does not beg from people importunately." [Agreed upon]

58. Chapter: On the permission to take that which is not asked for nor sought after

538. Salim ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported from his father, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to give me a gift and I would say, 'Give it to someone who is poorer and more in need of it than I am.' He said, 'Take it. When some property comes to you without your being greedy for it nor asking for it, then take it. But if you are not given anything, do not run after it.'" [Agreed upon]

59. Chapter: The encouragement to eat from the work of one's own hand, and to refrain from asking and turning to giving

Allah Almighty says, "Then when the prayer is finished, spread through the earth and seek Allah's bounty." (62:10)
539. 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is better for one of you to take a rope and bring a faggot of firewood on his back and sell it so that Allah gives him what he needs than for him to ask people who then give to him or refuse." [al-Bukhari]

540. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is better for one of you to take a rope and carry firewood on his back than for him to go to a man to beg from him who then gives to him or refuses to." [Agreed upon]

541. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Da'ud, peace be upon him, used to eat from the work of his own hands." [al-Bukhari]

542. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Zakariyya, peace be upon him, was a carpenter." [Muslim]

543. al-Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you eats better food than that which he eats as a result of the work of his own hand. The Prophet Da'ud used to eat from the work of his own hand." [al-Bukhari]

60. Chapter: On generosity, magnanimity and spending in good ways with trust in Allah Almighty

Allah Almighty says, "Anything you expend will be replaced by Him." (34:39) and the Almighty says, "Whatever good you give away is to your own benefit when you give desiring only the Face of Allah. Whatever good you give away will be repaid to you in full. You will not be wronged." (W2:271; H2:272) The Almighty says, "Whatever good you give away, Allah knows it." (W2:272; H2:273)
544. Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You can only have envy for two things: for a man to whom Allah has given wealth which he spends for the truth, and for a man to whom Allah has given wisdom and he acts by it and teaches it." [Agreed upon]

545. Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Which of you loves the property of his heir more than he loves his own property?" They said, "O Messenger of Allah, there is none of us who does not love his own property more." He said, "His property is what he sends ahead, and the property of his heir is what he keeps back." [al-Bukhari]

546. 'Adi ibn Hatim reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Protect yourselves from the Fire, even if only with half a date." [Agreed upon]

547. Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not asked for anything at all to which he said, 'No.'" [Agreed upon]

548. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no day which dawns on the slaves Of Allah without two angels descending and one of them saying, 'O Allah, refund those who give money' and the other saying, 'O Allah, ruin those who withhold it.'" [Agreed upon]

549. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah Almighty says, 'Son of Adam, spend and you will be spent on.'" [Agreed upon]

550. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Which aspect of Islam is best?" He said, "To give food and to give the greeting to those you know and those you do not know." [Agreed upon]

551. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are forty good qualities, the highest of which is giving away all of an animal's milk. If anyone acts with any one of these qualities hoping for its reward and affirming what is promised by it, on account of it Allah will admit him to the Garden." [al-Bukhari]

552. Abu Umama Suda ibn 'Ajlan reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O son of Adam! It is better for you to spend what is in excess of your needs and worse for you to keep it. You will not be blamed for (keeping) enough to cover your needs. Begin with your immediate dependants. The upper hand is better than the lower hand." [Muslim]

553. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not asked in Islam for anything without giving it. A man came to him and he gave him sheep filling the space between two mountains and he returned to his people saying, 'O people! Become Muslim! Muhammad gives a gift without any fear of poverty.' Even if a man becomes Muslim only out of desire for this world, it is not long before Islam becomes dearer to him than this world and everything in it." [Muslim]

554. 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made a distribution and I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, other people are more entitled to it than these.' He said, 'They gave me no option. Either they would have asked me in a very coarse way or they would have considered me miserly, and I am not miserly.'" [Muslim]

555. Jubayr ibn Mut'im said that while he was travelling with the Prophet, returning from Hunayn, some desert Arabs began to grab hold of him, when asking of him, until they forced him back against an acacia tree and his cloak was pulled right off. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, topped and said, "Give me my cloak. If I had had as many camels as the number of these trees, I would have divided them between you. You will not find me to be a miser, a liar nor a coward." [al-Bukhari]

556. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Sadaqa does not decrease wealth in any way, and for pardoning someone Allah only increases a slave in might, and no one is humble without Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, elevating him." [Muslim]

557. Abu Kabsha 'Umar ibn Sa'd al-Anmari heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Three things I can swear to you and I will tell you something you should remember. The property of a slave is not decreased by sadaqa. There is no slave who is inflicted by an injustice and is steadfast in it, without Allah increasing him in might. No slave opens the door of begging without Allah opening for him the door of poverty." - or words to that effect. "The something which you should remember," he said, "Is that this world consists of four types of people. There is a slave whom Allah provides with money and knowledge and he is fearful of his Lord in respect of it and maintains ties of kinship with it and acknowledges the right of Allah over it. This one is in the best position. There is a slave whom Allah provides with knowledge but does not provide with money. He has a sincere intention and says, 'If I had money, I would have acted as so-and-so acted.' He has according to his intention, so the reward of both of them is the same. There is a slave whom Allah provides with money but does not provide with knowledge, so he proceeds haphazardly with his money without any knowledge. He is not fearful of his Lord in respect of it nor does he maintain ties of kinship with it nor acknowledge the right of Allah over it. This person is in the worst position. There is a slave whom Allah does not provide with either money nor knowledge, so he says, 'If I had money, I would have acted as so-and-so acted. He has according to his intention, so the burden of sin of both of them is the same."

558. 'A'isha reported that they sacrificed a sheep and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "How much of it is left?" She said, "All that remains of it is its shoulder." He said, "On the contrary, all of it remains except its shoulder." [at-Tirmidhi]

559. Asma' bint Abi Bakr as-Siddiq said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'Do not withhold or it will be withheld from you.'" [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "Spend, (or give out or expend) and do not hold back, or Allah will hold back from you. Do not refuse to spend your surplus or Allah will deny you His."

560. Abu Hurayra reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The likeness of the miser and the one who gives is like two men wearing shirts of chain-mail from their breasts to their collar bones. When the giver of sadaqa spends, his shirt expands over his body until it covers his fingertips and obliterates his footsteps. When the miser wants to spend anything, every link remains in its place. He tries to make it looser but it will not get looser." [Agreed upon]

561. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If anyone gives in sadaqa as much as a date from honest earnings - and Allah only accepts what is good - Allah will accept it in His right hand and will then increase it in size for the giver, just like one of you might rear a foal, until it is the size of a mountain." [Agreed upon]

562. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Once while a man was walking in the desert, he heard a voice in a cloud saying, 'Water the garden of so-and-so.' And that cloud went and poured out its water into a rocky area. There was a certain water channel which held all the water and he followed it and found a man standing in his garden directing the water with his spade. He said to him. 'Slave of Allah, what is your name?' He said, 'So-and-so' giving the same name he had heard from the cloud. The man then said to him, 'O slave of Allah, why did you ask me my name?' He said, 'I heard a voice in the cloud from which this water came say, "Water the garden of so-and-so" giving your name. What are you doing with it?' He said, 'Since you have said this, I will [say]. I wait and see what it produces and give a third of it away as sadaqa, and my family and I eat from a third, and I reinvest a third back into it." [Muslim]

61. Chapter: On forbidding miserliness and avarice

Allah Almighty says, "But as for him who is stingy and self-satisfied, and denies the Good, We will pave his way to Difficulty." (92:8-11) The Almighty says, "It is the people who are safe-guarded from the avarice of their own selves, who are successful." (64:16).
563. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Beware of injustice. Injustice will be darkness on the Day of Rising. Beware of avarice. Avarice destroyed those before you and prompted them to shed each other's blood and to make lawful what Allah had made unlawful for them." [Muslim]

62. Chapter: On preferring others and helping others

Allah Almighty says, "They prefer them to themselves, even if they themselves are needy," (59:9) and the Almighty said, "They give food, despite their love for it, to the poor and orphans and captives..." (76:8 to the end)
564. Abu Hurayra said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'I am famished.' He sent to one of his wives and she said, 'By the One who sent you with the truth, I have nothing but water.' Then he sent to another and she said the same thing, until they had all said the same thing: 'By the One who sent you with the truth, I have nothing but water.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Who will give hospitality tonight?' A man of the Ansar said, 'I will, Messenger of Allah.' He took him to his place and said to his wife, 'Honour the guest of the Prophet.'"

In one variant, "He said to his wife, 'Do you have anything?' She said, 'No, only the children's food.' He said, 'Divert them with something else. When they want supper, put them to sleep. When our guest comes in, put out the lamp and I will look as if I'm eating.' So they sat down and the guest ate and they spent the night hungry. In the morning, they went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Allah was pleased with what you did with your guest last night." [Agreed upon]

565. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Food for two is enough for three, and food for three is enough for four." [Agreed upon]

566. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "Once when we were on a journey with the Prophet, a man came on a camel of his and began to look to his right and left. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Anyone who has a spare mount should prepare it for someone who does not have a mount to ride, and anyone who has extra provision should prepare it for someone who does not have any provision,' and he mentioned the different categories of property until we thought that none of us had any right to anything in excess of our needs." [Muslim]

567. Sahl ibn Sa'd said, "A woman brought the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a woven cloak (burda) with a border and said, 'I wove it with my own hands so that you could wear it.' The Prophet took it as he was in need of it. He came out to us using it as a waist-wrapper. Someone admired it and said, 'Give it to me to wear. How beautiful it is!' He said, 'Yes,' and the Prophet sat down in the assembly and then went back and folded it and sent it to him. The people said, 'You have not acted rightly. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wore it out of need for it and then you asked him for it knowing that he never refuses a request.' He said, 'By Allah, I have not asked for it in order to wear it, but I have asked for it only so that it can be my shroud.'" Sahl said, "It was indeed his shroud." [al-Bukhari]

568. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Ash'arites ran short of food on a raid - or their families in Madina ran short of food. They gathered together what they had in one cloth and then divided it among themselves equally using the same container. These people are from me and I am from them." [Agreed upon]

63. Chapter: On the desire for in matters which pertain to the Next World and seeking to have a lot of that which is blessed

Allah said, "Let people with aspiration aspire to that!" (83:26)
569. Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was brought a drink and drank some of it, and there was a boy on his right and old men on his left. He said to the boy, "Will you give me permission to give it to them?" The boy said, "No, by Allah, Messenger of Allah! I will not give anyone else preference where my share from you is concerned!" and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, placed it in his hand. [Agreed upon]

570. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When Ayyub was bathing while naked, golden locusts began to fall on him and Ayyub began to collect them in his garment. His Lord called to him, 'O Ayyub! Have We not made you wealthy enough not to need what you see?' He said, 'Yes, indeed, by Your might, but I still need Your blessing!.'" [al-Bukhari]

64. Chapter: On the excellence of the grateful wealthy person. He is the one who takes wealth properly and spends it the ways which have been commanded

Allah says, "As for him who gives out and is godfearing and confirms the Good, We will pave his way to Ease," (92:5-7) and the Almighty says, "The most godfearing will be far removed from it: those who give their wealth to purify themselves ­ not to repay someone else for a favour done ­ desiring only the Face of their Lord Most High. They will certainly be satisfied." (92:17-21) Allah says, "If you make your sadaqa public, that is good. But if you conceal it and give it to the poor, that is better for you, and We will erase some of your bad actions from you. Allah is aware of everything you do." (W2:270; H2:272) The Almighty related, "You will not attain true goodness until you give of what you love. Whatever you give away, Allah knows it." (W3:91-92; H3:92)
571. 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You can only have envy for two things: for a man to whom Allah has given wealth which he spends in the way of the truth, and for a man to whom Allah has given wisdom and he acts by it and teaches it." [Agreed upon]

572. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You can only have envy for two things: for a man to whom Allah has given the Qur'an and he gets up and recites it throughout the night, and for a man to whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it throughout the night and the day." [Agreed upon]

573. Abu Hurayra reported that the poor Muhajirun came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "The wealthy have appropriated the high degrees and abiding bliss." He said, "How is that?" He said, "They pray as we pray and they fast as we fast, but they give sadaqa and we do not give sadaqa and they set free slaves and we do not set free slaves." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shall I inform you of something by which you will overtake those who have preceded you and precede those who come after you and no one will be better than you unless he does the same as you do?" They said, "By all means, Messenger of Allah." He said, "You should say 'Glory be to Allah,' 'Praise be to Allah,' and 'Allah is greater' thirty-three times after every prayer." The poor Muhajirun then returned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Our brothers who possess property heard about what we were doing and they have done the same." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "That is a favour which Allah gives to anyone He wills." [Agreed upon]

65. Chapter: On remembering death and constraining expectation

Allah Almighty says, "Every self will taste death. You will be paid your wages in full on the Day of Rising. Anyone who is distanced from the Fire and admitted to the Garden, has triumphed. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of delusion," (3:185) and the Almighty says, "No self knows what it will earn tomorrow and no self knows in what land it will die." (W31:33; H31:34) The Almighty says, "When their specified time arrives, they cannot delay it for a single hour nor can they bring it forward," (16:61) and the Almighty says, "O you who believe! Do not let your wealth or children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. Whoever does that is lost. Give from what We have provided for you before death comes to one of you and he says, 'O Lord, if only you would give me a little more time so that I can give sadaqa and be one of the righteous.' Allah will not give anyone more time, once their time has come. Allah is aware of everything you do." (63:9-11) The Almighty says, "Until, when death comes to one of them, he says, 'My Lord, send me back again. so that perhaps I may act rightly regarding the things I failed to do!' No indeed! It is just words he utters. Before them there is an interspace until the day they are raised up. Then when the Trumpet is blown, that Day there will be no family ties between them, they will not be able to question one another. Those whose scales are heavy, they are the successful. Those whose scales are light, they are the losers of their selves, remaining in Hell timelessly, forever. The Fire will sear their faces making them grimace horribly in it, their lips drawn back from their teeth. 'Were My Signs not recited to you and did you not deny them?'" to His words, "'How many years did you tarry on the earth?' They will say, 'We tarried for a day or part of a day. Ask those able to count!' He will say, 'You only tarried for a little while if you did but know! Did you suppose that We created you for amusement and that you would not return to Us?'" (W23:100-116; H23:99-115) The Almighty says, "Has the time not arrived for the hearts of those who believe to yield to the remembrance of Allah and to the Truth He has sent down, and not to be like those who were given the Book before for whom the time seemed over long so that their hearts became hard. Many of them are degenerate." (W57:15; H57:16)
574. Ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took me by the shoulder and said, 'Be in this world as if you were a stranger or a traveller on the road."

Ibn 'Umar used to say, "In the evening, do not anticipate the morning, and in the morning do not anticipate the evening. Take from your health for your illness and from your life for your death." [al-Bukhari]

575. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "It is not right for a Muslim man who has anything to bequeath to spend two nights with having a written will in his possession." [Agreed upon. This is the variant in al-Bukhari]

In a variant of Muslim, "To spend three nights." Ibn 'Umar said, "Not a night has passed since I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that without my having had my will with me."

576. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drew some lines and said, 'This is man and this is end of his lifespan. That is how he is when this nearest line comes upon him." [al-Bukhari]

577. Ibn Mas'ud said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drew lines making a square and then drew a line in the middle which extended beyond it. He drew some small lines up to this middle line from the side within the square and said, 'This is man, and this is end of his lifespan which encircles him - or by which he is encircled - and this which goes beyond it is his hope and these small lines are things that happen. If this one misses him, that one gets him, and if that one misses him, this one gets him.'" [al-Bukhari] This is its form:

578. Abu Hurayra reported the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Race to good actions as fast as you can. What are you waiting for except delayed poverty, oppressive wealth, debilitating illness, dottering senility, a swift death or the Dajjal? Or are you waiting for an unseen evil, or the Last Hour? The Last Hour will be most bitter and terrible." [at-Tirmidhi]

579. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Remember frequently the thing that cuts off pleasures," i.e. death." [at-Tirmidhi]

580. Ubayy ibn Ka'b said, "When a third of the night had passed, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and said, 'O people! Remember Allah! The first blast has come and it will be followed by the second blast. Death has come with all that it involves. Death has come with all that it involves.' I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, I do a lot of prayer on you. How much prayer should I allot for you?' He said, 'However much you like.' I said, 'A quarter?' He said, 'However much you like, but if you do more, it will be better for you.' I said, 'A half?' He said, 'However much you like, but if you do more, it will be better for you.' I said, 'Two-thirds?' He said, 'However much you like, but if you do more, it will be better for you.' I said, 'I will allot all my prayer for you.' He said, 'Then you will be spared from worry and forgiven your wrong action.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

66. Chapter: On the recommendation for men to visit the graves and what the one who visits them says

581. Burayda reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I used to forbid you to visit graves, but now visit them." [Muslim]

582. 'A'isha said that whenever it was her night with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, he would go out at the end of the night to al-Baqi' and would say, "Peace be upon you, abode of a believing people. What you were promised will come to you tomorrow as decreed. Allah willing, we will join you. O Allah, forgive the people of Baqi' al-Gharqad." [Muslim]

[Baqi' al-Gharqad is the name of the cemetery of Madina. It was called Gharqad because of a type of thorny shrub (gharqad) which grew there.]

583. Burayda said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to instruct them that when they went out to the graves, they should say, 'Peace be upon you, people of the households of the believers and the Muslims. Allah willing, we will join you. I ask Allah for well-being for us and for you.'" [Muslim]

584. Ibn 'Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by some graves at Madina and turned his face towards them and said, 'Peace be upon you, O people of the graves! May Allah forgive us and you. You preceded us and we are following afterwards.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

67. Chapter: On it being disliked to wish for death because of some harm which has befallen a person, but there is no objection to it if it is because of fear of trial in the deen

585. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should wish for death. If he does good, he may increase in it, and if he does evil, he may turn in repentance." [Agreed upon. This is the version of al-Bukhari]

In a variant in Muslim, Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you should wish for death and he should not pray for it before it comes to him. When he dies, his actions come to an end. A believer's life only increases him in good."

586. Anas reported: "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'None of you should wish for death because of some harm which has befallen him. If he has got to do something, he should say, 'O Allah, make live if life is best for me and make me die if death is best for me." [Agreed upon]

587. Qays ibn Abi Hazim said, "We visited Khabbab ibn al-Aratt when he was ill and he had been cupped seven times. He said, 'Our companions who went before us have gone and this world did not cause them any decrease. We have acquired so much that the only way to spend it is in constructing buildings. If it were not that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had forbidden us to pray for death, I would have prayed for it.' Then we came to him again when he was repairing one of his walls and he said, 'A Muslim is rewarded for everything he spends except for what he invests in buildings.'" [Agreed upon. This is the version of al-Bukhari]

68. Chapter: On scrupulousness and abandoning things that are doubtful

Allah Almighty says, "You considered it to be a trivial matter, but, in Allah's sight, it is immense," (24:15) and the Almighty says, "Your Lord is always lying in wait" (89:14)
588. An-Nu'man ibn Bashir said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The halal is clear and the haram is clear. But between the two there are doubtful things about which most people have no knowledge. Whoever exercises caution with regard to what is doubtful, shows prudence in respect of his deen and his honour. Whoever gets involved in the doubtful things is like a herdsman who grazes his animals near a private preserve (hima). He is bound to enter it. Every king has a private preserve and the private preserve of Allah on His earth are the things that He has made forbidden. There is lump of flesh in the body, the nature of which is that when it is sound, the entire body is sound, and when it is corrupt, the entire body is corrupt - it is the heart.'" [Agreed upon]

It is related from different paths with various phrases.

589. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, passed by a date on the road and said, 'If it had not been that I feared it was part of the sadaqa, I would have eaten it.'" []Agreed upon

590. An-Nawwas ibn Sam'an reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Piety is good character. Wrong action is what is hatched up yourself and you do not want other people to know about." [Muslim]

591. Wabisa ibn Ma'bad said, "I came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he said, 'Have you come to ask about piety?' I said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Consult your heart. Piety is that with which the self is at rest and the heart is at rest and wrong action is what is hatched up in your self and echoes to and fro in your breast, even if people give an opinion in your favour and ask for your opinion.'" [Ahmad ibn Hanbal and ad-Darimi]

592. Abu Sirwa'a 'Uqba ibn al-Harith married a daughter of Abu Ihab ibn 'Aziz. Later a woman came to him and said, "I nursed both 'Uqba and the one he married." 'Uqba said to her, "I did not know that you nursed me and you did not tell me." So he travelled to the Messenger of Allah in Madina and asked him and the Messenger of Allah said, "How can you keep her when that has been said?" So 'Uqba separated from her and she married another man. [al-Bukhari]

593. Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali said, "I memorised from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Leave what gives you doubt for what gives you no doubt.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

594. 'A'isha said, "Abu Bakr as-Siddiq had a slave who used to pay him a levy and Abu Bakr used to eat from the levy. One day he brought something and Abu Bakr ate some of it. The slave said to him, 'Do you know what this is?' He said, 'What is it?' He said, 'In the Jahiliyya I used to be a soothsayer for a man. I did not do soothsaying well. I only deceived him. He met me and gave me that from which you ate.' So Abu Bakr inserted his hand into his mouth and vomited all that he had in his stomach." [al-Bukhari]

595. Nafi' said, "'Umar ibn al-Khattab used to allot four thousand for the first Muhajirun, but he only allotted three thousand four hundred for my father. Someone said to him, 'He is one of the Muhajirun, so why do you give him less?' He said, 'His father took him with him when he emigrated.'" He said, "So he was not like those who emigrated on their own account." [al-Bukhari]

596. 'Atiyya ibn 'Urwa as-Sa'di, the Companion, said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The slave will not achieve the status of being one of the Godfearing until he leaves what does not concern him out of consideration for what does concern him." [at-Tirmidhi]

69. Chapter: On the recommendation to withdraw when things are corrupt or one fears a temptation in one's deen or falling into the unlawful and doubtful things

Allah Almighty says, "So flee to Allah. Truly I am a clear warner from Him to you." (51:50)
597. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Allah loves a fearful, self-sufficient, inconspicuous slave." [Muslim]

598. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said, "A man said, 'Messenger of Allah, who is the best of people?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A believer who does jihad in the way of Allah with his self and his wealth.' They said, 'Then who?' He said, 'A man who withdraws into a mountain ravine and worships his Lord.'"

One version has, "Who is fearful of Allah and spares people from his evil." [Agreed upon]

599. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The time will soon come when the best property of a Muslim will be some sheep which he takes to the peaks of the mountains and to places where the rain falls, in order to flee out of the fear that his deen will be tempted." [al-Bukhari]

600. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah did not send any Prophet but that he herded sheep." His Companions said, "Including you?" He said, "Yes, I used to herd them for money (qirats) for the people of Makka." [al-Bukhari]

601. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "One of the best of livelihoods that people can have is that of a man who holds the reins of his horse in the way of Allah, hastening on its back, and whenever he hears the sound of war or alarm, he flies to it looking for either the killing or the death that he will find there, or that of a man among some sheep at the top of one of these mountains or in the bottom of one of these valleys who establishes the prayer and pays the zakat and worships Allah until certainty (death) comes to him. He does not involve himself with people except in a good way." [Muslim]

70. Chapter: On the excellence of having dealings with people and attending their gatherings and group prayers, their 'ids and gatherings of dhikr, visiting those who are ill, attending their funerals, helping the one in need, guiding the who is ignorant, and other things which are in their best interests in the case of someone who is able to command the good and forbid the wrong, and preventing oneself from causing injury and enduring injury

Allah Almighty says, "Help each other to goodness and taqwa." (5:2) The ayats about what I have mentioned are numerous and well-known.
71. Chapter: On Humility and being gentle with the believers
Allah Almighty says, "Take the believers who follow you under your wing," (W26:214; H26:215) and the Almighty says, "O you who believe! If any of you renounce your deen, Allah will bring forward a people whom He loves and who love Him, humble to the believers, fierce to the rejectors." (W5:56; H5:54) The Almighty says, "O mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in Allah's sight is the most godfearing." (49:13) The Almighty says, "So do not claim purity for yourselves. He knows best those who have fear of Him,: (W53:31; H53:32) and the Almighty says, "The Companions of the Ramparts will call out to men they recognise by their mark, saying, 'What you amassed was of no use to you nor was your arrogance. Are these the people you swore that Allah's mercy would never reach?' 'Enter the Garden. You will feel no fear and know no sorrow.'" (W7:47-48; H7:48-49)
602. 'Iyad ibn Himar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah revealed to me that you should be humble so no one should vaunt himself above another, and no one should commit injustice against another." [Muslim]

603. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Sadaqa does not decrease property and Allah only increases a slave in might by forgiveness and no one is humble for the sake of Allah without Allah elevating him." [Muslim]

604. Anas said that he passed by some boys and greeted them, saying, 'The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do that.'" [Agreed upon]

605. Anas said, "If one of the slavegirls of the Madina took the hand of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, she could take him wherever she liked." [al-Bukhari]

606. Al-Aswad ibn Yazid said, "I asked 'A'isha, 'What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do in his house?' She said, 'He would serve his family. When it was time for the prayer, he would go out to the prayer." [al-Bukhari]

607. Abu Rifa'a Tamim ibn Usayd said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he was giving an address and said, 'O Messenger of Allah, a foreigner has come asking about his deen. He does not know what his deen is.' The Messenger of Allah turned to face me and broke off his address and came up to me. A chair was brought and he sat on it and began to teach me part of what Allah had taught him. Then he went back to his address and finished it." [Muslim]

608. Anas reported that when he ate food, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would lick his three fingers. He said, "He said, 'When one of you drops a morsel, he should wipe the dirt from it and then eat it and should not leave it for Shaytan.' He commanded that the dish should be licked clean. He said, 'You do not know in what part of your food the blessing lies.'" [Muslim]

609. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah did not send any Prophet but that he herded sheep." His Companions said, "Including you?" He said, "Yes, I used to herd them for money (qirats) for the people of Makka." [al-Bukhari]

610. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If I were invited to eat no matter whether it is a shoulder or merely a trotter, I would accept and if I were given a gift of a shoulder or merely a trotter, I would accept either." [al-Bukhari]

611. Anas said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had a she-camel called al-'Adba' which could not be beaten in a race (or could rarely be beaten). A bedouin came on a youngish camel and beat it. That was difficult for the Muslims and, recognising that, he said, 'It is a right of Allah that nothing elevates itself in this world, without Him then bringing it low." [al-Bukhari]

72. Chapter: On the Prohibition of pride and arrogance

Allah Almighty says, "That Abode of the Next World: We grant it to those who do not seek to exalt themselves in the earth or to cause corruption in it. The successful outcome is for the godfearing," (28:83) and the Almighty says, "Do not strut arrogantly about the earth." (17:37) The Almighty says, "'Do not avert your face from people out of haughtiness and do not strut about arrogantly on the earth, Allah does not love anyone who is vain of boastful," (W31;17; H31:18) and the Almighty says, "Qarun was one of the people of Musa but he lorded it over them. We gave him treasures, the keys to which alone were a heavy weight for a party of strong men. See when his people said to him, 'Do not gloat. Allah does not love people who gloat.'" (28:76)
612. 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "No one who has an atom's weight of pride in his heart will enter the Garden." A man said, "And if the man likes his clothes to be good and his sandals to be good?" He said, "Allah is Beautiful and loves beauty. Pride means to renounce the truth and abase people." [Muslim]

613. Salama ibn 'Amr ibn al-Akwa' reported that a man ate with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, using his left hand, and he said, "Eat with your right hand." He said, "I cannot." He said, "Then you cannot." Only pride had stopped him." He said, "He could not raise it to his mouth." [Muslim]

614. Haritha ibn Wahb said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Shall I tell you about the people of the Fire? All those who are coarse, domineering, and arrogant.'" [Agreed upon]

615. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Garden and the Fire argued and the Fire said, 'I have the tyrants and the arrogant.' The Garden said, 'I have the weak and poor people.' Allah judged between them, 'You, the Garden, are My mercy. By you I show mercy to whomever I wish. You, the Fire, are My punishment by whom I punish whomever I will. It is My duty to fill both of you." [Muslim]

616. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On the Day of Rising, Allah will not look at anyone who drags his waist-wrapper out of pride." [Agreed upon]

617. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are three people that Allah will not speak to on the Day of Rising nor purify nor look at and they will have a painful punishment: an old adulterer, a lying ruler and a poor person who is arrogant." [Muslim]

618. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, said, 'Might is My wrapper, and pride is My cloak and I will punish any one who contends with me [for them]." [Muslim]

619. Abu Hurayra reported that Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Once a man was walking in his robe, proud of himself, his hair groomed, haughty in his gait, and Allah caused the earth to swallow him up. He will go on sinking into the earth until the Day of Rising." [Agreed upon]

620. Salama ibn al-Akwa' reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, aid, "A man will continue to be arrogant until he is written among the tyrants and what strikes them will strike him." [at-Tirmidhi]

73. Chapter: On Good Character

Allah Almighty says, "Indeed you are truly vast in character," (68:4) and the Almighty says "those who control their rage and pardon other people." (3:134)
621. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had the best character of anyone ." [Agreed upon]

622. Anas said, "I did not touch any silk brocade nor silk softer than the palm of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. I did not smell any scent sweeter than the scent of the Messenger of Allah. I served the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for ten years and he never said to me, 'Uff' nor did he say about anything I had done, 'Why did you do that?' nor about anything I had not done, 'Why did you not do that?'" [Agreed upon]

623. As-Sa'b ibn Jaththama al-Laythi said, "I gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a wild ass and he returned it to me. When he saw the expression on my face, he said, "We are only returning it to you because we are in ihram." [Agreed upon]

624. An-Nawwas ibn Sam'an said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about piety and wrong action. He said, 'Piety is good character and wrong action is what is hatched up in your self and you do not want other people to know about." [Muslim]

625. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was neither obscene nor indecent. He used to say, 'The best of you are the best in character." [Agreed upon]

626. Abu'd-Darda' reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There will be nothing heavier in the balance of the believer on the Day of Rising than good character. Allah dislikes foul language." [at-Tirmidhi]

627. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about the things most likely to bring people into the Garden. He said, 'Fearful awareness of Allah and good character.' He was asked about the things most likely to bring people into the Fire. He said, 'The mouth and the genitals.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

628. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The believers with the most perfect belief are the best of them in character. The best of you are the best of you towards your wives." [at-Tirmidhi]

629. 'A'isha said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'By his good character a believer can reach the same rank as someone who fasts and prays at night." [Abu Dawud]

630. Abu Umama al-Bahili reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I guarantee a house on the outskirts of the Garden to anyone who abstains from disputation, even if he is in the right, and a house in the middle of the Garden for anyone who abandons lying, even when he jests, and a house at the summit of the Garden for anyone who has good character." [Abu Dawud]

631. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Those I love most and those sitting nearest to me on the Day of Rising will be those of you with the best character. Those most hateful to me and the furthest of you from me on the Day of Rising will be the pompous, the braggarts and the arrogant.' They said, 'Messenger of Allah, we know the pompous and the braggarts, but who are the arrogant?' He said, 'The proud.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

74. Chapter: On forbearance, patience and kindness

Allah Almighty says, "those who control their rage and pardon other people. Allah loves the do good-doers," (3:134) and the Almighty says, "Make allowances for people, command what is right, and turn away from the ignorant." (7:199) The Almighty says, "Good action and bad action are not the same. Repel the bad with what is better and, if there is enmity between you and someone else, he will be like a bosom friend. None will obtain it but those who are truly steadfast. None will obtain it but those who have great good fortune." (41:33-34; 41:34-35) The Almighty says, "But if someone is steadfast and forgives, that is the most resolute course to follow." (W42:40; H42:43)
632. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Ashajj 'Abdu'l-Qays, "You have two qualities which Allah loves: forbearance and steadiness." [Muslim]

633. 'A'isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah is kind and loves kindness in every matter." [Agreed upon]

634. 'A'isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah is kind and loves kindness and gives for gentleness what he does not give for harshness nor for anything else." [Muslim]

635. 'A'isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whenever kindness is in a thing it adorns it, and whenever it is removed from anything, it disfigures it." [Muslim]

636. Abu Hurayra said, "A bedouin urinated in the mosque. The people moved towards him and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Let him be and pour a bucket or pail of water onto his urine. You were sent to make things easy and not to make them difficult.'" [al-Bukhari]

637. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Make things easy for people and do not make them difficult. Give good news to people and do not frighten them away." [Agreed upon]

638. Jarir ibn 'Abdullah said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Whoever is deprived of kindness is deprived of all good.'" [Muslim]

639. Abu Hurayra reported that a man said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Advise me." He said, "Do not get angry." He repeated his request several times and the Prophet said, "Do not get angry." [al-Bukhari]

640. Abu Ya’la Shaddad ibn Aws reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah has prescribed good for everything. So when you kill, kill well. When you sacrifice, sacrifice well. Each of you should sharpen the edge of his knife and should calm down his sacrificial animal." [Muslim]

641. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was never given a choice between two matters without taking the easier of them, as long as it was not a wrong action. If it was a wrong action, he was the furthest of people from it. The Messenger of Allah did not take revenge for himself in respect of anything unless it violated the sanctity of Allah. Then he would take revenge for the sake of Allah Almighty." [Agreed upon]

642. Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Shall I tell you who is unlawful for the Fire - or the one for whom the Fire is unlawful? It is unlawful for everyone who is easy, flexible, modest and uncomplicated." [at-Tirmidhi]

75. Chapter: On pardon and turning away from the ignorant

Allah Almighty says, "Hold to forgiveness; command what is right, but turn away from the ignorant," (7:199) and Allah Almighty says, "Turn away graciously." (15:85) The Almighty says, "They should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive you?" (24:22) The Almighty says, "and pardon other people. Allah loves the do good-doers," (3:134) and the Almighty says, "But if someone is steadfast and forgives, that is the most resolute course to follow." (W42:40; H42:43)
643. 'A'isha asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Have you ever experienced a worse day than the day of Uhud?" He replied, "I experienced many things from your people, and the worst that I experienced from them was on the Day of 'Aqaba when I presented myself to Ibn 'Abdu Yalil ibn 'Abd Kulal and he did not grant me what I wanted. I went off in great grief and felt no relief until I arrived at Qarn ath-Tha'alib. Then I lifted my head and there was a cloud shading me, and I looked and in it was Jibril, peace be upon him, and he called to me and said, "Allah Almighty has heard what your people have said to you and how they answered you. He has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you for you to command him to do whatever you wish to them." The Angel of the Mountains called to me and greeted me and then said, "O Muhammad, Allah heard what your people said to you and I am the angel of the mountains. My Lord has sent me to you for you to give me your command. What is your will? If you like, I will crush them with the two heavy mountains."' The Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Rather I hope that Allah will produce from their loins people who worship Allah alone without associating anything with Him.'" [Agreed upon]

644. 'A'isha said, 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never struck anyone with his hand, including women and servants, unless he was fighting in the way of Allah. He did not demand retaliation for anything that happened to him, unless one of the sacred things of Allah Almighty was violated, then he would retaliate for the sake of Allah Almighty." [Muslim]

645. Anas said, "I was walking with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he was wearing a Najrani cloak with a thick border. A bedouin came up to him and pulled the cloak violently. I looked at the Prophet's shoulder and it had been marked by the border of the cloak due to the severity of his pull. Then he said, 'Muhammad, allot to me some of property of Allah which you have.' He turned to him and laughed and then ordered a gift to be given to him." [Agreed upon]

646. Ibn Mas'ud said, "It is as if I could see the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recounting that the people of one of the Prophets, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them, struck and wounded him, and he said as he wiped the blood from his face, 'O Allah, forgive my people. They do not know.'" [Agreed upon]

647. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The strong man is not the one who throws people in wrestling. The strong man is the one who has control of himself when he is angry." [Agreed upon]

76. Chapter: On enduring injury

Allah Almighty says, "those who control their rage and pardon other people. Allah loves the do good-doers," (3:134) and the Almighty says, "But if someone is steadfast and forgives, that is the most resolute course to follow." (W42:40; H42:43)
648. Abu Hurayra reported that a man said, "Messenger of Allah, I have some relatives with whom I maintain connections but who cut me off. I am good to them but they are bad to me. I am forbearing with them but they are hasty towards me!" He said, "If it is as you said, it is as if you were feeding them hot ash and you will continue to have a helper from Allah Almighty against them for as long as you act like that." [Muslim]

77. Chapter: On anger when the sacred things of the Shari'a are violated and helping the deen of Allah Almighty

Allah says, "If someone honours Allah's the sacred rites, that is better for him in his Lord's sight," (22:30) and the Almighty says, "If you help Allah, He will help you and make your feet firm." (W47:8; H47:7)
649. Abu Mas'ud 'Uqba ibn 'Amr al-Badri said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'By Allah, Messenger of Allah, the only reason I do not attend the morning prayer is because so-and-so makes the prayer too long for us.' I have never seen the Messenger of Allah more angry in giving admonition than he was that day. He said, 'Some of you make things difficult for people. Any of you who of you lead people in prayer should make it short. Among you there are those who are weak, old and have things they must do.'" [Agreed upon]

650. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came from a journey and I had screened off a shelf of mine with a curtain which had some figures on it. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw it, he ripped it down and his face changed colour. He said, ''A'isha, the people with the worst punishment with Allah on the Day of Rising will be those who make things like Allah's creation.'" [Agreed upon]

651. 'A'isha reported that Quraysh were concerned with the case of a Makhzumi woman who had stolen something and they said, "Who will speak to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about her?" They said, "Who is bold enough to do it except Usama ibn Zayd, the beloved of the Messenger of Allah?" Usama spoke to him and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "How can you intercede when it is a case of one of the legal punishments of Allah Almighty?" Then he stood up and spoke and said, "Those before you were destroyed because when a noble among them stole, they let him be, but when the weak among them stole, they carried out the legal punishment on them. By Allah, if Fatima the daughter of Muhammad were to steal, I would cut off her hand." [Agreed upon]

652. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw some phlegm in the qibla. It was so offensive to him that it could be seen in his face. He got up and scraped it off with his hand. He said, "When anyone does the prayer, he is speaking to his Lord and his Lord Allah is between him and the qibla. None of you should spit towards qibla, but rather to his left or under his food." Then he took the end of his cloak and spat into it and then folded it up and said, "Or he should do this." [Agreed upon]

The command to spit to his left or under his foot refers to outside the mosque. In the mosque, you should only spit into your garment.

78. Chapter: On commanding those in authority to be kind to their subjects, to give them good counsel and to be compassionate to them, and forbidding those in authority from cheating them, being harsh to them, overlooking their best interests and being unmindful of them and their needs

Allah says, "Take the believers who follow you under your wing," (W26:214; H26:215) and the Almighty says, "Allah commands to justice and doing good and giving to relatives. And He forbids indecency and doing wrong and tyranny. He warns you so that perhaps you may pay heed." (16:90)
653. Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'All of you are shepherds. Each of you is responsible for his flock. An imam is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. A man is a shepherd in respect of his family and is responsible for his flock. The woman is a shepherd in respect of her husband's house and is responsible for her flock. The servant is a shepherd in respect of his master's property and is responsible for his flock. All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock.'" [Agreed upon]

654. Abu Ya'la Ma'qil ibn Yasar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'No slave is made shepherd over a flock by Allah and dies and is cheating his flock on the day he dies without Allah denying him the garden." [Agreed upon]

In one variant, "The fragrance of the Garden will not reach him if he does not give it good counsel."

In the variant of Muslim, "Any amir who is appointed over the affairs of the Muslim and then does not strive for them and advise them well will not enter the Garden with them."

655. 'A'isha said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say in this house of his, 'O Allah, anyone who is appointed over any of the affairs of my community and is hard on them, I will be hard on him. Anyone who is appointed over any of the affairs of my community and is kind to them, I will be kind to him." [Muslim]

656. Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The tribe of Israel used to be ruled by the Prophets. Whenever a Prophet died, another Prophet would succeed him. There is no Prophet after me, but after me there will be khalifs, and there will be many of them." They said, "O Messenger of Allah, what do you command us?" He said, "Give full allegiance to the first and then the next and then give them their rights and ask Allah for that which is due to you. Allah will question them about that which they were put in charge of." [Agreed upon]

657. 'A'idh ibn 'Amr reported that he visited 'Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad and said to him, "My boy, I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The worst of shepherds is the harsh one.' Beware lest you be one of them.'" [Agreed upon]

658. Abu Maryam al-Azdi told Mu'awiya, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "If Allah puts someone in charge of any of the affairs of the Muslims and he is then blind to their needs, friendship and poverty, Allah will be blind to his needs, friendship and poverty on the Day of Rising.'" Mu'awiya, therefore, put a man in charge of seeing to the needs of the people. [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

79. Chapter: On the just ruler

Allah Almighty says, "Allah commands to justice and doing good," (16:90) and the Almighty says, "Be even-handed. Allah loves those who are even-handed." (49:9)
659. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are seven whom Allah will shade with His shade on the day when there is no shade but His shade: a just Imam, a youth who grows up worshipping Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, a man whose heart is attached to the mosque, two men who love each other for the sake of Allah, meeting and parting for that reason alone, a man who refuses the advances of a noble and beautiful woman, saying, 'I fear Allah', a man who gives sadaqa and conceals it so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives, and a man who remembers Allah when he is alone and his eyes overflow with tears." [Agreed upon]

660. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Those who are just will be on minbars of light with Allah. They are those who are just in respect of their judgements, their families and what they are put in charge of." [Muslim]

661. 'Awf ibn Malik said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The best of your Imams are those you love and who love you, whom you pray for and who pray for you. The worst of your Imams are those you hate and who hate you, and whom you curse and who curse you." He said, "We said, 'Messenger of Allah, should we depose them?' He said, 'No, not as long as they establish the prayer among you. No, not as long as they establish the prayer among you.'"[Muslim]

662. 'Iyad ibn Himar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'The people of the Garden are three: a man in power who is just and successful in fulfilling his duty; a merciful man who is kind-hearted to all his relatives and all the Muslims; and an abstinent, modest man with a family.'" [Muslim]

80. Chapter: On the obligation to obey those in authority as long as it is not a wrong action, and the prohibition against obeying them in an act of rebellion against Allah

Allah Almighty says, "O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those in command among you." (W4:58; H4:59)
663. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A Muslim man must hear and obey both in respect of what he likes and dislikes, unless he is commanded to do a wrong action. If he is commanded to do a wrong action, he should not hear or obey." [Agreed upon]

664. Ibn 'Umar said, "When we used to give allegiance to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to hear and obey, he would say to us, 'In so far as you are able.'" [Agreed upon]

665. Ibn 'Umar said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who removes his hand from obedience will meet Allah on the Day of Rising with no proof. Anyone who dies without having given the oath of allegiance will die the death of the Jahiliyya.'" [Muslim]

In a variant of his, "Whoever dies split off from the community will die the death of Jahiliyya."

666. Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Hear and obey, even if an Abyssinian slave with a head like a raisin is appointed over you." [al-Bukhari]

667. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You must hear and obey both in your hardship and your ease and with regard to what pleases you and what you dislike and even if you do not get your due." [Muslim]

668. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr said, "Once we were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey and we halted to pitch camp. Some of us were mending wool tents and some of us were shooting arrows against one another, and some of us were with their camels. Then the caller of the Messenger of Allah called out, 'The prayer will be done together.' So we gathered round the Messenger of Allah and he said, 'There was no Prophet before me but that it was a duty for him to direct his community to a good that he knew for them and to warn them against an evil that he knew for them. The well-being of this community of mine has been put at its beginning while the last of it will be afflicted by trials and matters which you dislike. Seditions will come and each will seem worse than the one before it. A sedition will come and the believer will say, "This is my destruction," and then it will depart. And another sedition will come and the believer will say, "This is it! This is it!." Anyone who wants to be removed from the Fire and to enter the Garden and to have death come to him while he believes in Allah and the Last Day should give to other people what he wants to be given to himself. Whoever gives allegiance to an Imam, let him give it with the clasp of his hand and the core of his heart. Let him obey him if he can. If another comes to depose him then strike the neck of that other.'" [Muslim]

669. Abu Hunayda Wa'il ibn Hujr said, "Salama ibn Yazid al-Ju'fi asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'O Prophet of Allah! What is your opinion if amirs are put in charge of us who ask us for their rights and deny us our rights? What do you command us to do?' He turned from him. Then he asked him and the Messenger of Allah said, 'Hear and obey. They owe what they are charged with and you owe what you are charged with." [Muslim]

670. 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'After I am gone there will be misappropriation and matters of which you disapprove.' They said, 'O Messenger of Allah, what do you command us to do?' He said, 'To fulfil the rights you owe to others and to ask Allah for what is owed to you.'" [Agreed upon]

671. Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allah and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allah. Whoever obeys the amir has obeyed me and whoever disobeys the amir has disobeyed me.'" [Agreed upon]

672. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Anyone who dislikes something from his amir should be patient. Anyone who abandons obedience to the amir for even a short time dies the death of the Jahiliyya." [Agreed upon]

673. Abu Bakra said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'Anyone who demeans the Sultan will be demeaned by Allah.'" [at-Tirmidhi]

81. Chapter: On the prohibition against seeking authority and the option of not accepting it if it is not specific to him or if he is not required

Allah Almighty says, "That Abode of the Next World: We grant it to those who do not seek to exalt themselves in the earth or to cause corruption in it. The successful outcome is for the godfearing." (28:83)
674. Abu Sa'id 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Samura said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'O 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Samura. Do not ask for leadership. If you are given it without asking for it, you will be helped in it. If you are given it through asking for it, it will be up to you. If you make a vow and then see something other than it which is better than it, then do that which is better and expiate your oath.'" [Agreed upon]

675. Abu Dharr said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, 'O Abu Dharr! I see that you are weak and I want for you what I want for myself. You will never be put in charge of even two men nor be put in charge of the property of an orphan.'" [Muslim]

676. Abu Dharr said, "I said, 'Messenger of Allah, why do you not appoint me?' He clapped me on the shoulder with his hand and then said, 'Abu Dharr, you are weak. It is a trust, and on the Day of Rising it will be disgrace and regret except for the man who takes it as it should be taken and fulfils what is demanded of him in respect of it.'" [Muslim]

677. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You will covet leadership, but it will be a source of regret on the Day of Rising." [al-Bukhari]

82. Chapter: On encouraging the Sultan, qadi and others in authority to adopt a righteous counsellor and warning them against bad company and accepting their advice

Allah Almighty says, "On that Day the closest friends will be enemies to another - except for the godfearing." (43:67)
678. Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Allah did not send a Prophet nor appoint a khalif without him having two counsellors, one counsellor commanding the right and encouraging it, and one counsellor commanding the wrong and encouraging it. The one protected is the one that Allah protects." [al-Bukhari]

679. 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When Allah desires good for the amir, He gives him a truthful wazir. If he forgets, he reminds him. If he remembers, he helps him. If He desires other than that for him, He gives him a bad wazir. If he forgets, he does not remind him, and if he remembers, he does not help him.'" [Abu Dawud]

83. Chapter: On the Prohibition against granting appointment as amirs and judges and positions of authority to those who asked for it or indirectly express desire for that

680. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said, "I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with two of my cousins. One of them said, 'Messenger of Allah, give us authority over some of what Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has appointed you over.' The other said something similar. He said, 'By Allah, we will not appoint anyone over this matter who asks for it nor anyone who is eager for it." [Agreed upon]


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